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Submission Preparation Checklist

As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.
  • The submission has not been previously published, nor is it before another journal for consideration (or an explanation has been provided in Comments to the Editor).
  • The submission file is in OpenOffice, Microsoft Word, or RTF document file format.
  • The text is single-spaced; uses a 12-point font, Cambria, 1½-spaced; employs italics, rather than underlining (except with URL addresses); and all illustrations, figures, and tables are placed within the text at the appropriate points, rather than at the end.
  • The text adheres to the stylistic and bibliographic requirements outlined in the Author Guidelines.
  • Where available, URLs for the references have been provided.

Author Guidelines

We accept, and publish, articles and book reviews only in English.

  • Articles should include an abstract in English, no longer than 300 words, followed by five to ten keywords. Book reviews should not include abstracts.
  • There is no strict length limit. However, original articles are usually between 10 to 20 pages (including referencing), and reviews between 2 to 5 pages. 
  • Articles and book reviews should be submitted in OpenOffice, Microsoft Word, RTF, or WordPerfect document file format, and the text should be justified, in size 12-point font, Cambria, 1½-spaced. All illustrations, figures, and tables are placed within the text at the appropriate points, rather than at the end.
  • Articles submitted to the journal should not be submitted elsewhere. Authors are responsible for obtaining permission to publish any material under copyright.
  • Remember to make sure that the article file is kept anonymous. 
  • No footnotes for references. Use them only if necessary to comment on something.
  • British English spelling is preferred.
  • Use as few capitals as possible and use them consistently.
  • Italics should be used for foreign words other than proper names. Italics for emphasis are discouraged. 
  • Please follow the Japanese naming convention: Surname First name.
  • You should follow the modified Hepburn Romanization, with the use macrons (ā, ē, etc.), rather than the doubling of the vowel.  For more information, you can refer to:
  • Abbreviations: Omit full stops in abbreviations consisting of capital letters (MP, USA). Use capitals for acronyms such as NATO and UNESCO. 
  • Dates should be in the form 1st May 1968, 2 May 1968, 1970s, the twentieth century. 
  • Numbers up to 100 should normally be spelt out, except for percentages, exact quantities, or a series of numbers. Use ‘per cent’ (not %) except in tables. Include a comma in numbers over 999. The second of a pair of numbers should be abbreviated (i.e. 175–6 not 175–176), except for numbers 11–19 which retain the 1.
  • Proofs are supplied only to ensure that the printed version coincides with the manuscript accepted. Rewriting an article in proof is not allowed. You will be sent a copy-edited version as an attachment, along with any questions that have arisen, before the article is published. Please make sure that your manuscript is in a final form at this stage.
  • Quotations of more than 50 words should be indented in the typescript and typed in double line spacing. Use single inverted commmas for shorter quotations. Square brackets should be used to enclose interpolations, and three dots to indicate omissions. Make sure there are no errors in the spelling, punctuation and capitalization of quotations.


We ask authors to use the following referencing system :

Within the text: (Author surname, date: page)

In the referencing list

For a book: Author surname, name (Year of publication), Title. Edition (if not first). Place of publication: Publisher. 

For a journal article: Author surname, name (Year of publication), Title of the article. Journal Title, Volume, (Issue), pp. page numbers.

For a full referencing model, including other kind of sources, please see here: Referencing



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